Category Archives: Philosophy

Four basic concepts at the core of Indian spirituality, Mircea Eliade

 

Yoga: Immortality and freedom by Mircea Eliade

An insightful passage  from Mircea Eliade, in the ‘Point of departure’ of his book Yoga, Immortality and freedom.

He explains in this introductory passage how any historical study of Indian philosophy has to discuss these four basic concepts and explain their relationship. Obviously, the various systems of Indian philosophy (Samkhya, Yoga, Vedanta, etc.) and we might also include here the Buddhist traditions, will differ on the definition they give to the concept of Nirvana or Moksa, absolute freedom. That will have consequences on the Yoga, the ways or techniques which have necessarily to be in keeping with the ultimate goal to be reached. Eliade ends by emphasizing that the pursuit of truth by the Indian sage is for achieving liberation or freedom from the limitations of human condition, which distinguishes him from a western philosopher.

Four basic and interdependent concepts, four “kinetic ideas,” bring us directly to the core of Indian spirituality, They are karma, maya, nirvana, and yoga. A coherent history of Indian thought could he written starting from any one of these basic concepts; the other three would inevitably have to be discussed. In terms of Westem philosophy, we can say that, from the post-Vedic period on, India has above all sought to understand:

(1 ) The law of universal causality, which connects man with the cosmos and condemns him to transmigrate indefinitely. This is the law of karma.

(2) The mysterious process that engenders and maintains the cosmos and, in so doing, makes possible the “eternal return” of existences, This is maya, cosmic illusion, endured (even worse- accorded validity) by man as long as he is blinded by ignorance (avidya).

(3) Absolute reality, “situated” somewhere beyond the cosmic illusion woven by maya and beyond human experience as conditioned by karma: pure Being. the Absolute, by whatever name it may be caIled—the Self (atman), brahman, the unconditioned, the transcendent, the immortal, the indestructible, nirvana, etc.

(4) The means of attaining to Being, the effectual techniques for gaining liberation. This corpus of means constitutes Yoga properly speaking.

With these four concepts in mind, we can understand how the fundamental problem of all philosophy, the search for truth, presents itself to Indian thought. For India, truth is not precious in itself; it becomes precious by virtue of its soteriological function, because knowledge of truth helps man to liberate himself. It is not the possession of truth that is the supreme end of the Indian sage; it is liberation, the conquest of absolute freedom. The sacrifices that the European philosopher is prepared to make to attain truth in and for itself: sacrifice of religious faith, of worldly ambitions, of wealth, personal freedom, and even life—to these the Indian sage consents only in order to conquer liberation. To “free oneself” is equivalent to forcing another plane of existence, to appropriating another mode of being transcending the human condition. This is as much as to say that, for India, not only is metaphysical knowledge translated into terms of rupture and death (“breaking” the human  condition, one “dies” to all that was human); it necessarily implies a consequence of mystical nature: rebirth to a non conditioned mode of being. And this is liberation, absolute freedom.

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The brain from top to bottom

Vodpod videos no longer available.

Among the subjects which are indirectly connected to the vision of Vedanta and therefore worth exploring are the brain, the human behavior, the emotions and the nature of consciousness.

I found the following website to be an amazingly rich source of information on these subjects. It is called ‘The brain from top to bottom’ and is an initiative affiliated and funded by the Canadian Institute of Health, Institute of Neurosciences, Mental Health and addiction.

It includes different subject matters from the most recent ‘The emergence of consciousness’ to ‘Emotions and the brain’ and ‘Pleasure and pain‘ to cite a few of them. What is remarkable is that the topics can be explored at different levels of explanation (beginner, intermediate and advanced) and organization (social, psychological, neurological, cellular, molecular).

As an illustration, one can go to the different sub topics for ‘The emergence of consciousness’ at the psychological and beginner level : What is consciousness, Philosophical positions on consciousness, Theories of consciousness in cognitive sciences, Flaws in classical model of consciousness.These sub topics can be explored at an intermediate or advanced level.

To know more about the sense of I, the self, the unconscious and consciousness according to Vedanta, you can view and download the pdf article ‘Psychology in Vedanta’ by Swami Dayananda Saraswati.

Am I the body? How real is the body?

I am so identified with the body that the attributes of the body are taken to be mine and I conclude that ‘I am tall, thin, blond, 40 years old, etc.’. In other words I am confined to this body, subject to birth, aging and death, sorrow and joy. How true is that conclusion?

This video gives us some insights into how Vedanta inquires into the nature of the body. Is this body real? Can I find a tangible substance that I can call the body?

The inquiry leads me to see that it is mithya in terms of reality; it has an empirical reality but not an absolute reality. It is only a name for different forms within forms which are put together and changing all the time. It also shows that I cannot be the body since I, as a subject, is the one who objectifies its changing conditions.

Vodpod videos no longer available.

With all our warm thanks to our friends Elodie and Dino from Paris, who shot this video in Rishikesh in September 2008 on the banks of Ganga, during one of our intensive retreats.

To know more about this inquiry, some links to our website

[1]. What is satyam & mithya?

[2]. if I am not the body, what is the nature of I?

Global Oneness Project : What Would It Look Like?

What if the world embodied our highest potential? What would it look like?” This film is the brand new 25-minute retrospective of Global Oneness Project. It  “asks us to reflect on the state of the world and ourselves, and to listen more closely to what is being asked of us at this time of unprecedented global transformation.”

For more videos from this organization on “how the radically simple notion of interconnectedness can be lived in our increasingly complex world“, you can visit their site at http://www.globalonenessproject.org/

Some thoughts which came from a discussion Neema and I had after having watched this film are enclosed in this post. Do not hesitate to share with us your comments !

On ‘What would it be like ?’ of Global Oneness Project

Comments from the perspective of Vedanta

It is an inspiring film with powerful images and well chosen speakers. It is about time that people recognize the fact of interconnectedness and act on it. The present state of our planet is a truly global challenge and it needs increased awareness, across cultures, religions, etc. In that respect, this film contributes in making us see how different people from different cultures are committed to bringing about this change, based on a larger perspective of things.

As the movie explains strikingly, it is not an impossible task as it may seem at first sight. Many breakthroughs like going to the moon, or breaking an atom to use its energy, which seemed totally out of our reach, have been achieved in human history. Not only scientific achievements, but also social advancements have been made possible in the recent past like empowerment of women in different domains and equal rights for black. The fact is that societies are evolving, hence things can potentially change for better. This means, to believe that when you and other like- minded people do act for a social cause, we can definitely bring about a change.

Action is a power given to human being

I would like here to make a few comments on these ideas from the perspective of Vedanta. Indeed, among the three powers all human beings are endowed with, the power to desire, to know and to act, the power to act is very significant. We are placed in this universe not only to witness or watch what is happening but are meant to act and interact with the universe. We have been given a capacity to bring changes in certain situations that are unfolding everyday in our lives, at an individual or global level.

Dharma : the framework of action

When we act, the more we incorporate in our decisions the order of dharma or universal values that binds humanity together, more considerate and responsible our actions are. When we base our decisions not on a narrowly defined self interest but  on universal values of preservation of life, environment and diversity of cultures, the global state of affairs will certainly improve.

Expectations with reference to results of actions

This movie inspires people by emphasizing the role of action. Here, we totally agree that with reference to actions, we must necessarily exercise our free will and make more informed decisions. But if one has to be totally objective, one has also to consider some facts about result of actions. Once we understand the exact scope of result and action, we can sustain our enthusiasm for actions.

When I perform actions, for example, in improving the environment, maybe as a result of these efforts, private enterprises would realize the importance of using more eco-friendly technologies and we can achieve some significant improvement in state of environment. However, there is also the other possibility that things may not go in keeping with my expectations. When things do not happen either to the extent or at the speed with which I expect, I may loose enthusiasm.

I will continue to persevere if I recognize that I have choice over actions, but results of actions I don’t totally control. If I were really in control, I would always be able to get the desired outcome, but it is not so. I do not always know nor can I intervene on all the factors that enter into play into determining the outcome of actions. Hence, sometimes we get more or equal to what we expect. There is also a possibility that results are less or opposite of what we expected.

If I don’t control results, then what decides the outcome? Results are governed by an order which connects my actions, the actions of others performed in the past and present, and connects them to bring about the outcome. This order manifests in the form of certain laws which are never failing.

Problems themselves are a result of interconnectedness

The various problems that we are facing are themselves a result of actions that are performed by oneself and many others. So many people have contributed in the past and at present to the present state of environment. The order has taken into account  actions of corporations, individuals, politicians etc, in the past and present to bring about the present state of environment which has reached such magnitude and complexity.

Things may have started small when few industries started polluting the air at the beginning of the industrial age. Then more industries came and additional wastage led to further deterioration. One cannot say these companies were not responsible or evil entities. They were all providing employment, and contributing to overall economic development of society. But the neglect of environmental impact over the years led to the present state of environment. We individuals made choices, and the order has combined all these effects to bring about the outcome.

Youth dreams of an ideal society

The understanding of this relationship between action and result is very important to sustain my efforts towards bringing about change. Many of us remember that in our teenage years, we wanted the economic system to change, people to be loving and responsible, we were rebelling against corruption, wished to do something against poverty. We had all kinds of ideals which were very noble in nature. But many of us were not able to sustain these ideas with enough momentum. Why? Because we often became discouraged when we discovered that things do not always happen according to our wishes. We then joined the mainstream against whom we were rebelling earlier. In some cases, change for better may still remain a dormant desire but we don’t actively pursue it any more.

A complex process at multiple levels

In our effort to change things for better, another expectation which may discourage us to persist further is the expectation that as result of our effort, all people will realize the necessity for global change and act with the increased level of awareness. This expectation is not realistic. When we observe any thing in creation, there are no identical things. There are differences. We all are born with a psyche with certain possibilities. Each psyche can expand but to anticipate that all individuals will operate from the same level of awareness is unrealistic. Human beings at any given time are not all going to behave or think in an identical manner.

To keep the momentum going: bringing in the order

I do not mean to say that as an individual you will not be able to change anything or anyone. And you have to remain passive or inactive. One can certainly make a difference and one must act to bring about a desired change. But if your expectations are inherently unrealistic, then what happens is that the momentum for action soon goes away when things do not happen your way. If your whole focus and commitment is on the expectation of a particular type of result, you will be often disappointed. But when you focus on your actions and  you recognize that things happen according to an order, an immense network of different laws and possibilities connecting all human psyche, actions and results, then you continue your efforts in spite of shortfall. Once the recognition of order comes, you do not loose trust even when things do not happen at the pace or magnitude you are expecting. You have trust in the universe and its order that sooner or later, five or ten or hundred years from now, any well intended action, will be rewarded. This is how you keep going.

Then, the realistic position is, maybe each and everyone is not going to change, but you continue to act. Your action can very well inspire a portion of humanity; as a result, those human beings will be able to do things differently and things will change at a bigger level. Each of your actions will produce a result. Each of those small acts will be included in the network of laws and rewarded, no matter how small they are because they are all inputs which are considered in the overall arrangement or scheme of things.

To summarize, one is totally objective when one recognizes the scope of actions, the order governing results, and also the psychological order which make all our psyche different. Once we keep all these elements in mind, and focus on action, because this is what we can do, then we can really sustain all our efforts on a long term basis.

Recognizing our place of possible intervention

Another important element is the recognition of our place in the overall scheme of things. We all want to do big things. But we all have our own position of power and influence in the scheme of things, which determines our unique sphere of possible interventions. A politician, a scientist, a religious leader, a spiritual teacher, a school teacher, a house wife, a writer, a journalist, an architect, etc. do not have obviously the same scope for intervention in various domains. And within these groups, each individual will also have a different position of power or influence and set of skills from which he or she can intervene.  That position can of course change in the course of time and also with reference to the different roles we assume as a human being.

For example, even if you want to do something about global warming, you cannot as an individual change everything everywhere at all levels. Maybe world leaders can intervene in the current environment crisis as they have a much bigger sphere of influence than any other individual. Or a CEO of a company has a large domain of influence than what you have. Similarly concerted actions of groups, medias, advocacy groups and organizations have more influence than those of isolated individuals. However, the key to being a contributor is to identify what you can do realistically at any given point in time and take concrete actions towards achieving these goals.

The focus has to be on action

To conclude, in order to be effective in achieving some noble goals, I have to ask myself what is it that I can do tangibly at this point in time in each of the spheres of environment, poverty, religion, etc. given my position. In some spheres I can do a lot, in some I may not be able to do much but at the same time, I can definitely initiate things. I can identify some realistic goals for myself, work on it sincerely. For example, environmental goals for an individual can start by reducing usage of plastic, consumption of electricity or water, or walk instead of driving when possible etc. These small actions themselves are a contribution. The focus has to be on action.

Having performed these actions, we can have trust in the order. No good action gets unrewarded even if the results in the short run may not be what we expected. This is how we become objective with this idea of interconnectedness and make a contribution without loosing heart or momentum. When we have started in the right direction as a contributor, the order may keep providing us more and more opportunities to meet other individuals and groups who share our overall vision; and that has the power to make our earth a better place to live in.

Neema Majmudar & Surya Tahora

Lifting the cover for the vinegar fly

Here is a striking image coming from the Taoist tradition about the importance of having a teacher in the pursuit of freedom. As in Vedanta, the Tao Master is familiar with the methodology to employ to take the student from where he is and lead him out of his narrowly self defined universe. Indeed, the paradigm shift that is needed is radical :

‘In the (knowledge of the) Tao am I any better than a fly caught in a vinegar tank? If the Master had not lifted my cover, I would have not known the universe in its amazing integrality.’

Chuang Tzu, XXI, Tian Zi Fang

Go further with the following links to Discover Vedanta, the yoga of objectivity

[1] Vedanta is a means of knowledge

[2] The methodology of teaching

[3] The role of the teacher


Reality & responsibility

Interconnectedness

Interconnectedness ( Flickr - Dave Gates)

A prevalent assumption about Vedanta is that since it says the nature of the reality of the world is mithya (not absolutely real), it thereby encourages human being to discard any activity in the world and even disconnect oneself from it. The other misconception is also that Vedanta is a tradition which is concerned only with one’s personal liberation and therefore very egoistic. How true are these assumptions?

First of all, this understanding of mithya has to be corrected. Mithya does not mean false or illusory and therefore devoid of value, but is an ontological term revealing our understanding of an object in terms of its reality. Vedanta does not say the whole universe is an illusion, and hence one should run away it; rather it emphasizes that  the world is nothing but the manifestation of  one and non-dual reality, appearing as many because of all- power and all- intelligence (Isvara).

Second, Vedanta repeatedly affirms that in order to gain the knowledge of the reality of oneself, one should grow as a human being in terms of compassion and widen our narrow perspective of things. The initial view of ourselves as a individual separated from everything and confronted to a hostile world of events and people is to be replaced by the view that all that is here is Isvara, manifesting in the form of an order at all levels (physical, biological, psychological, dharma and karma, etc.) thereby connecting at a very fundamental level all living beings within the entire universe. As a result of understanding interdependence and interconnectedness of everything,  an individual is expected to grow to become aware of what is to be done by him in different situations he is placed in and contribute whatever is in his or her domain of influence to this world,. This clearly entrusts human beings with more responsibility towards the universe rather than disconnecting him from it.

Also, as one becomes more objective and grows as an individual, one become much more efficient and lucid in one’s actions. Because actions do not stem anymore from a subjective and egoistic view of the world driven by accomplishments of mere personal ends but out of one’s understanding of what is.

Thus, the person who is pursuing freedom, as well as the one who knows the reality unfolded in Vedanta, can very well be involved in various activities meant for the well being of others. As Bhagavad Gita V-25 says:

Sages whose impurities have been destroyed, whose doubts have been resolved, who have self-mastery (and) who are happily engaged in the good of all beings, gain liberation.

Swami Dayananda Saraswati, who is an unparalleled teacher of Vedanta, is a living example of the person who has proper assimilation of the teaching, conducts in this world. Besides being a teacher, his is involved in various activities such as social service, promotion of peace and dialogue between religions at a global level, preservation of Indian culture and traditions, etc. The most significant areas in which he has been working for more than 40 years are summarized here below:

  • Teaching of Vedanta
  • Research and Publications
  • Establishing organizations for providing education and health care for people in rural India
  • Several initiatives to bring world thinkers together to promote peace and harmony within India as well as internationally.

Go further with the following links to Discover Vedanta, Being alive to what is

[1] Article in pdf format, The vision of Vedanta

[2] Maturity & knowledge, The individual and the total

[3] Maturity & knowledge, How life become a means to gains maturity & Being in harmony with the universal ethical order

[4] Action and result, What is karma yoga?

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For those who want to have more details about the work our teacher is engaged in at various levels, I have inserted here some excerpts of an interview of him, done on 7 Sept 2008 in Saylorsburg by Dr. V. Swaminathan. (Source : http://www.arshavidya.in/) :

VS: Swamiji, this is an incredible amount of work! Let us begin with teaching, that being an area very dear to you. Can Swamiji please speak about his work in this area and about the Gurukulams set up in India and overseas?

Swamiji: I have been teaching Vedanta for almost fifty years now. Currently, I teach courses and hold camps for about 5 to 6 months each year and also deliver public talks in a number of cities in India and overseas. As a student I recognized that for a mumuksu to study Vedanta is not simple – one needs a good teacher, a place to stay, bhiksha – each one of these requires grace. Therefore, I created facilities for a three-year program of study at Rishikesh, Saylorburg, Anaikatti and lastly in Nagpur. The long-term study program has a syllabus that includes study of Vedanta prakaranas, Bhagvad Gita, Upanisads and finally chatussutri. All these imply the study of Sankara Bhashya in the original. Along with these studies, the Sanskrit language is also taught with Paninian grammar. Besides all this, there are daily meditation and satsangas (which are often question and answer sessions). I along with my students have taught ten of these three-year programs (eight in India and two in the United States) and many of my students from these programs are now teaching all over India and abroad. My students are totally free to pursue what they like after the course. I encourage them to share their knowledge and be contributors wherever they are.

In addition to these, the Arsha Vidya Centre for Research and Publication based in Chennai is publishing a number of books on the teachings. About 20 books have been published so far. There are different series of books, like the series on ‘Public Talks,’ ‘Moments with oneself,’ ‘Vakya Vicara,’ ‘Mantras and Stotras’ and ‘Upanisad’ series. In addition to these series, there are other books like ‘Visnu Sahasranama,’ ‘Collection of essays’ etc. published else where. All these books are available at the bookstores in our Gurukulams and so are a number of DVDs, CDs and tapes on various topics.

Q: Swamiji, can you tell us about the AIM for Seva, a unique movement initiated by you and its activities and the necessity for such a movement?

Swamiji: Ours is a culture in which there is no place for competition. A child inherited the profession of its father. The competition was only how well you are able to do whatever you did and what your commitment is. Therefore it is a spiritual society. The duties called svadharma, were well defined. Duties remain the same for everyone. The inner composition, disposition alone undergoes transformation.

Competition means you have to follow norms. Without rules there is no competition. Whether it is a game or business, you need to follow rules. The rules have to grow upon you. The competition that we see now is thrown upon us. Therefore people are insecure and you find the symptoms of the insecurity in terms of grabbing and hoarding and taking advantage of each situation. This is a society which is unknown to us, and now it is seen to be very rampant.

Therefore, I thought we should create a new chemistry. In our culture there is such a thing as daanam, sharing, caring. We are caring people. We do not throw our elders to old age homes. We have homes and we keep them with us and we respect them. Therefore, we have to emphasize some of these very important values in our own being and these values have to surface. For this, a movement is necessary. You need a movement and therefore I started this movement called, All India Movement for Seva.

I started doing various things in the villages around Anaikatti, Coimbatore, where we have our Gurukulam. I was looking for one thing that can really initiate this movement. I asked one of the women in the village, ‘What do you expect us to do? What do you want?’ She said, ‘Please start a home for the children. We want our children to study. Now we cannot send the children to school because the school is 5 miles away. Since there are wild animals around, we cannot send the children to school. Please start a home.’ That struck me as this is what we should do. Our Chairman was Sri R. Venkataraman, ex-president of India, and he said that we will start one Student Home (Chatralaya) in every district to begin with. That was the commitment with which we started. There are now almost 62 Chatralayas in 13 states.

Then we started schools, hostels, hospitals, mobile medical services. There are 5 hospitals located in Tamilnadu, Gujarat, U.P and Bihar. We are even running a Government hospital and it is functioning well. In Mathura there is an eye-hospital. 7 Health care centers are functioning in Tamilnadu, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Karnataka. Mobile Out Reach Programmes─where a mobile unit equipped with medical facilities visits the villages─are functioning in Gujarat, Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. There are Day Care Centres for children below 5 years. In Anaikatti alone there are 170 of them. Bengal is the only state where we do not have anything.We hope that we will be able to do something there also.

As part of Tsunami activity, 3 desalination plants have been set up in Pazhaverkadu area near Chennai. We have also provided boats, fishing nets, new homes and also renovated old homes for fishermen. Kofi. A. Annan – Secretary General, UNO recognized our activities and AIM for Seva was mentioned in his report. All this has happened within these few years. So we have a good track record within a short span of a few years. I could do all this because of my disciples.

I have told all the acharyas of Hindu Dharma Acharya Sabha that in their name I am doing all these activities of AIM for Seva. They should also do this work. Individually they are all doing now. There is a certain awareness that has been created and we need to do this work.

Any movement needs to reach a critical point and from that point alone it will take off. I think we are somewhere around. The new chemistry has to come – CARING. Just to CARE. Why? Because there is no other way a person can really mature. The whole process of maturing implies the transformation from being a consumer to a contributor, even though one continues to be a consumer. The one who contributes more than what one consumes is a grown up person. Otherwise, the person is still a child. Therefore one has got to discover oneself as a contributor and that inner transformation has to take place. That is India. Giving is India. We have to therefore, emphasize this caring – programmes of caring. We should get the people involved because, the problems are so enormous. Even the people who see the problems cannot do anything, because they are emotionally paralyzed. They cannot think of doing anything. Therefore we have to create an avenue for the people to pitch in. It maybe small help, but when there are a lot of people pitching in, then that becomes a movement. So that’s the whole vision. All our sadhus are also engaged in this work. There are also a lot of people who are quietly doing small things individually. But all of them have to be brought together in a movement. This is the movement.

VS: Can you shed some light on your activities in the area of education?

Swamiji: I established the Dayananda Educational Trust to provide quality education to the economically backward sections of rural Tamil Nadu, particularly Manjakudi and surrounding villages. The Trust has enabled a model for rural education. Nearly 3,500 students attend schools/college daily and we provide in one campus pre-grade to post-graduation education. Both the school and college offer co-education. The trust has also under it the management, two other schools in nearby villages (Semmangudi and Mudikondan). Overall, the schools and college serve the need of ~ 200 villages within a 30 km radius. By and large the student body consists of 1st generation students. We have both commuting as well as residential students. The schools and college are run with high efficiency.

The facilities include a hygienic canteen and adequate toilet facilities. Over the years, there is a steady increase in the enrollment of girls in the college, indicating the progressive empowerment of women. More parents are sending their children to schools and there is a greater awareness of the importance of education leading to economic well being and improved standard of living. Further, there is also an increased awareness of health, hygiene, and nutrition in families through students. The Manjakudi schools and college are indeed a good model for replication in other similar rural areas.

I should also mention about Krupa, an institution for the mentally challenged that was established in 1998. The Dayananda – B.D. Goenka Seva Trust is managing the institution. Krupa was started with the aim of helping mentally challenged children to get proper care and give their parents a better quality of life. Krupa is an institution of caring. It has 25 residents currently and the aim is to grow the number gradually.

VS: Swamiji, you have been participating and taking a lead role in several global initiatives for promoting harmony among religions and world peace. Please tell us about them.

Swamiji: I have been participating in several global initiatives to further the cause of peace between nations. Some of these include:
The International Inter-religious Encounter, held at Monterrey, Mexico, Sept 2007
World Youth Peace Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, 2004
World Youth Peace Conference, Kyoto, Japan 2003
Dharma Conference in New Jersey, July 2003
Conference on preservation of religious diversity held at New Delhi
(inaugurated by Prime Minister Sri A.B.Vajpayee and attended by the Dalai
Llama among others)
Global Peace Initiative of Women Religious and Spiritual Leaders, Geneva,
Switzerland, Oct 2002
World Council for Preservation of Religious Diversity Bangkok, June 2002
International Congress for the Preservation of Religious Diversity in Delhi, 2001.
Millennium World Peace Summit at the United Nations in 2000 in which I led the
Hindu delegation
The fifth Global Peace Initiative of Women convened in Geneva by Ms. Dena
Merriam held in Jaipur, India during March 2008
Upcoming Hindu-Buddhist meet in Cambodia under the auspices of the World Council of Women religious leaders in Feb 2009

VS: (…)Swamiji, Thank you very much for taking the time to tell us about the important activities you are currently engaged in. I am sure people will find this very informative and will come forward in larger numbers to support these initiatives. Pranams Swamiji.

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